Increases All-Cause Mortality
Miller III et al.
and Bjelakovic et al. carried out reviews and
meta-analyses on previous clinical trials involving
and concluded that
increases the all-cause mortality.
were 22 clinical trials on ¦Á-tocopherol
supplementation singly involving mortality.
Bjelakovic et al. classifies the clinical
trials into low-bias risk (high methodology quality)
and high-bias risk (low methodology quality) groups.
Fig. 1 summarizes a re-calculated relative risk of
supplementation singly for the 13 low-bias risk
clinical trials, after excluding the high-bias risk
group (9 clinical trials) and possible confounding
effects of co-supplementation with other vitamins
and minerals. The relative risk for all-cause
mortality of ¦Á-tocopherol
supplementation (singly) of the low-risk bias group
(1.07) is significantly higher than that without
eliminating the high-bias risk trials (1.02).
Miller III E R, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma R
A, Appel L J and Guallar E (2005).
Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E
supplementation may increase all-cause mortality.
Ann. Int. Med, 142 (1): 37-46 (Originally published
online on 10 November 2004).
Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D,
Glund L L, Simonetti R G and Glund C (2007). Mortality
in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for
primary and secondary prevention ¨C Systematic review and
meta-analysis, JAMA 297(8): 842-857.