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-Tocopherol Increases All-Cause Mortality

Miller III et al. and Bjelakovic et al. carried out reviews and meta-analyses on previous clinical trials involving -tocopherol and concluded that -tocopherol increases the all-cause mortality.

There were 22 clinical trials on -tocopherol supplementation singly involving mortality.   Bjelakovic et al. classifies the clinical trials into low-bias risk (high methodology quality) and high-bias risk (low methodology quality) groups. Fig. 1 summarizes a re-calculated relative risk of -tocopherol supplementation singly for the 13 low-bias risk clinical trials, after excluding the high-bias risk group (9 clinical trials) and possible confounding effects of co-supplementation with other vitamins and minerals.  The relative risk for all-cause mortality of -tocopherol supplementation (singly) of the low-risk bias group (1.07) is significantly higher than that without eliminating the high-bias risk trials (1.02).


Miller III E R, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma R A, Appel L J and Guallar E (2005). Meta-analysis: High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann. Int. Med, 142 (1): 37-46 (Originally published online on 10 November 2004).

Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Glund L L, Simonetti R G and Glund C (2007).  Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention C Systematic review and meta-analysis, JAMA 297(8): 842-857.

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